The List of Gemstones

The List of Gemstones – Crystallography

Crystallography is a science that studies and examines crystals. A crystal is a homogeneous solid substance that has a natural geometric symmetrical uniformity with an arrangement of plane faces. Crystals are made of a lattice of atoms, ions and/or molecules that link together in a repetitive pattern to form into one of seven crystal systems. The list of gemstones in this article is categorised under their appropriate crystal system. 

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Cubic Crystal System

Also known as the isometric system, the cubic crystal system has three axes of equal length that intersect at right angles. The most common cubic crystal shapes are the cube, pentagonal dodecahedron, rhombic dodecahedron, hexacisochedron, icosi-tetrahedron, and the octahedron.

A
Alamandine

Analcite
Andradite

B
Bixbyite
Boleite

C
Chromite

Cuprite

D
Demantoid

Diamond

F
Fabulite

Fluorite

G
Gahnite
Gahnospinel

Galaxite
Garnet
GGG
Gold
Grossularite

H
Hackmanite
Hauynite

Helvite
Hercynite
Hessonite

K
Katoite

L
Langbeinite
Lapis Lazuli
Lazurite

Leucogranite

M
Magnesiochromite
Magnetite
Melanite

Microlite

P
Pentlandite
Periclase
Picotite
Pleonaste
Pollucite
Pyrite
Pyrope

R
Rhodozite
Rhodolite

S
Schorlomite
Senarmontite
Silver
Sodalite

Spessartine
Sphalerite
Spinel

T
Thorianite
Topazalite
Tsavorite

U
Uvarovite

V
Villiaumite

Y
YAG

Z
Zirconia
Zunyite

Hexagonal Crystal System

The list of gemstones in the hexagonal system has three of four axes on the one plane. These axes are of equal length and intersect each other at 120° angles. The fourth axis is different in length and at right angles to the others. A typical hexagonal crystal shape is a pyramid.

A
Algondite

Apatite
Aquamarine

B
Basnasite
Benotoite
Beryl
Bixbyite
Breithauptite

C
Cacoxenite

Cancrinite
Catapleite
Chlorapatite
Covellite

E
Emerald
Ettringite

F
Flourapatite

G
Gold Beryl
Goshenite
Greenocktite

H
Heliodor
Hydroxylapatite

J
Jeremejevite

L
Lizardite

M
Manganapatite
Milarite
Mimetite Moissanite

Morganite

N
Nepheline
Nickeline

P
Painite
Poudretteite
Precious Beryl

 

S
Simpsonite
Sogdianite
Sturmanite
Sugilite

T
Taaffeite
Thaumasite

V
Vandanite

W
Wurtzite

Z
Zincite

Tetragonal Crystal System

A tetragonal crystal system is a formation that has three axes. Two of these axes are on the same plane and are of equal length. The third and primary axis can be either shorter or longer than the other two however, all three axes intersect at right angles. Typical crystal formations are double pyramids, four-sided prisms and pyramids, eight-sided pyramids, and trapezohedrons.

A
Anatase

Apophyllite

C
Carletonite
Cassiterite
Chalcopyrite
Chiolite

E
Ekanite

F
Fergusonite

 

H
Hyacinth

L
Leucite

M
Marialite
Meionite
Melinophane
Mellite

P
Phosgenite
Powellite
Pyrolusite

R
Rutile

S
Sarcolite
Scapolite
Scheelite

Sellaite
Stolzite

T
Thorite
Tugtupite

V
Vesuvianite

W
Wardite
Wulferite

Z
Zircon

Trigonal Crystal System

The trigonal system (rhombohedral system) is a crystal formation where three of the four axes are on the same plane and are equal in length. They intersect each other at angles of 120°. The fourth axis is is at right angles to the others and is different in length. The cross section of the prism base in a trigonal system is three sided. In Hexagonal systems it is six. Typical trigonal crystal formations are three sided prisms and pyramids, scalenohedra, and rhombohedra. 

A
Achroite

Agate
Amethyst
Amethyst Quartz
Ametrine
Ankerite
Aventurine

B
Bloodstone
Blue Quartz
Brucite
Buergerite

C
Calcite
Carnelian
Cat’s-Eye Quartz
Chalcedony
Chromdravite
Chrysoprase
Citrine
Cinnabar
Corundum

D
Davidite
Dendritic Agate
Dioptase
Dolomite
Dravite

E
Elbaite
Eudialyte

G
Gaspeite

H
Hawk’s-Eye
Hematite

I
Ilmenite
Indicolite

J
Jasper

L
Liddicoatite
Linobate
Lizardite

M
Magnesite
Melonite
Millerite
Moss Agate

P
Parisite
Pezzottaite

Petrified Wood
Phenakite
Povondraite
Prase
Prasiolite

Proustite
Pyrargyrite

Q
Quartz

R
Rhodochrosite
Rock Crystal
Rose Quartz
Rubellite
Ruby

S
Sapphire
Sardonyx
Schlossmacherite
Schorl
Siberite
Siderite
Smithsonite
Sphaerocobaltite
Smoky Quartz
Stichtite

T
Tiger’s-Eye
Tsilaisite
Tourmaline

 

U
Uvite

V
Verdelite

W
Willemite

Orthorhombic Crystal System

The list of gemstones in the orthorhombic system (rhombic system) have three different length axes are at right angles to each other. Typical shapes are basal pinacoids, pyramids, rhombic prisms, and rhombic double pyramid.

A
Adamite
Aeschyrite
Alexandrite
Andalusite
Anglesite
Anhydrite
Aragonite

B
Baryte
Bastite

Bismutotantalite
Boracite
Bornite

Bronzite
Brookite

C
Celestine
Cerussite
Chambersite
Childrenite
Chrysoberyl
Cobalite
Cordierite

D
Danburite
Descloizite
Diaspore
Dumortierite

E
Enstatite
Eosphorite
Euchroite
Euxenite

F
Ferrosilite
Fosterite

G
Goethite
Grandidierite

H
Hambergite
Hemimorphite
Heterosite
Holtite
Humite
Hypersthene

K
Kornerupine

L
Lawsonite
Libethenite
Lithiophilite

M
Manganotantalite
Marcasite
Mordernite

N
Natrolite
Norbergite

P
Pearl
Peridot
Prehnite
Purpurite

 

S
Scorodite
Sekaninaite
Sepoiolate
Shattuckite
Shomiokite
Shortite
Sillimanite
Sunhalite
Smarskite
Stibiotantalite
Strontianite
Sulfur

T
Tanzanite
Tephroite

Thomsonite
Thulite
Topaz
Triphylite

V
Varsicite

W
Wavellite
Witherite

Y
Yttrotantalite

Z
Zektzerite
Zoisite

Monoclinic Crystal System

The monoclinic crystal system is a crystal system where three axes are different in length. Two of the axes are at right angles to each other and the other axis is inclined. Common crystal forms are prisms with inclined end faces and basal pinacoids.

A
Actinolite
Aegirine
Aegirine-Augite
Allanite
Antigorite
Augelite
Azurite

B
Barytocalcite
Bayldonite
Beryllonite

Bikitaite
Bowenite

Brazilianite

C
Canasite
Chalcocite
Charoite
Childrenite
Chondrotite
Chromian Diopside
Chrysocolla
Clinochlore
Clinochrysotile
Clinoenstatite
Clinohumite
Colemanite
Creedite
Crocoite
Cryolite

D
Datolite
Dickinsonite
Diopside

E
Epidote
Euclase

F
Friedelite
Fuchsite

G
Gadolinite
Gaylussite
Gypsum

H
Hancocktite
Hedenbergite
Herderite
Hiddenite
Hodgkinsonite
Hornblende
Howlite
Hubnerite
Hureaulite
Huributite
Hyalophane
Hydroxylherderite

I
Inderite

J
Jadeite

K
Kammererite
Kunzite

L
Lazulite
Legrandite
Lepidolite
Ludlamite

M
Malachite
Mesolite
Monazite

Moonstone
Muscovite

N
Nephrite
Neptunite

O
Orthoclase

P
Palygorskite
Papagoite
Pargasite
Petalite
Phosphophyllite
Piemontite
Prosopite
Psilomelane
Pumpellyite
Pyrophyllite

R
Realgar
Richterite
Rinkite

S
Sanidine
Sapphirine Scolecite
Scorzalite
Serpentine
Smaragdite
Spodumene
Spurrite
Staurolite

T
Talc
Tawmawite
Titanite
Tremolite

V
Vayrynenite
Violane
Vivianite
Vlascovite

W
Whewellite
Williamsite
Wolframite
Wollastonite

X
Xonotite

Y
Yugawaralite

Triclinic Crystal System

The list of gemstones in the triclinic crystal system have three axes of different length. All axes are inclined to each other at non-perpendicular angles relative to each other. Paired faces are a typical example of a triclinic crystal formation.

A
Albite
Amazonite
Amblygonite

Andesine
Anorthite
Anorthoclase
Axinite

B
Bustamite
Bytownite

C
Cerleite
Chabazite

F
Ferro-Axinite
Fowlerite

K
Kurnakovite
Kyanite

L
Labrodorite
Leucophanite

M
Magnesio-Axinite
Manganaxinite
Microline
Montebrasite

N
Nambulite
Natromontebrasite

O
Oligoclase

P
Pectolite
Peristerite
Pyrophylite
Pyroxymangite

R
Rhodonite

S
Serandite
Serendibite
Sunstone

T
Talc
Tinzenite
Turquoise

U
Ulexite
Ussingite

W
Weloganite
Wollastonite

X
Xonolite

Amorphous

Unlike crystals, Amorphous materials are non-crystalline solids that have no apparent shape, symmetry or organisation

Amber

Glass

Moldavite

Obsidian

Opal

Petrified Wood

Strass

Misleading Gemstone Names

Correct Names

Italian Jade
Korean Jade

Lithia Amethyst
Lithia Emerald
Madeira Topaz
Marmarosch Diamond
Matura Diamond
Mexican Diamond
Mexican Jade
Montana Ruby
Oriental Amethyst
Oriental Hyacinth
Oriental Topaz
Palmyra Topaz
Salmanca Topaz
Saxon Chyrosolite
Saxon Diamond
Serra Topaz
Siamese Aquamarine
Siberian Chrysolite
Siberian Ruby
Simili Diamond
Slave-Diamond
Smoky Topaz
Spanish Topaz
Strass Diamond
Transvaal Jade
Ural Sapphire
Viennese Turquoise

Aventurine (Quartz)
Serpentine
Kunzite (Spodumene)
Hiddenite (Spodumene)
Citrine (Quartz)
Rock Crystal (Quartz)
Colorless fired Zircon
Rock Crystal (Quartz)
Artificially tinted Green Marble
Red Garnet
Violet Sapphire
Pink Sapphire
Yellow Sapphire
Brown Synthetic Sapphire
Citrine (Quartz)
Greenish-Yellow Topaz
Colorless Topaz
Citrine (Quartz)
Blue Zircon
Demantoid (Garnet)
Red Tourmaline
Glass Imitation
Colorless Topaz
Smoky Quartz
Citrine (Quartz)
Glass Imitation
Green Hydrogrossular Garnet
Blue Tourmaline
Artificially Blue-tinted Argillaceous Earth

Source: False and misleading names of some gemstones, p 13, newly revised fifth edition, Gemstones of the World, Walter Schumann