Gemstones and Crystals

Gemstones and Crystals

Planet Earth

Before we begin our research into the World of gemstones and crystals let’s take a look at planet Earth and her structure. Mother Earth is a massive ball of rock 7,927 miles in diameter and weighs about 6.6 sextillion tons. A sextillion, for those who don’t know, is the unit number 1 followed by 21 zeros. So, if we were to write down the weight of the Earth on paper it would appear like this – 6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons.

The Earth is composed of a dense inner core which is primarily a solid ball of iron and nickel. Its outer core is made up of iron, nickel, and a convection of liquid metals such as gold, platinum, and uranium. These metals can also be found on the surface of the Earth in solid form.

The Earth’s continents are islands of granite rock floating on dense, dark rocks underlying ocean basins that may go down as deep as 600 miles. Minerals of economic value are derived from the lighter granite rocks and rocks sourced from the lighter layer of granite. Mountains form when some darker rocks come to the surface of the Earth and are visible.

Minerals

Minerals are inorganic chemical compounds or elements that occur naturally in the Earth’s crust. Some minerals have a fixed chemical structure and some are a string of related compounds where one metallic element may partly or wholly replace another. For example, jadeite and spodumene are two minerals that are very similar in chemical characteristics and much alike in some of their physical properties. However, both minerals do vary greatly in colour and some other physical properties.

Elements

Elements are a class of substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical processes. They are the building blocks of all materials, including rocks and minerals, and created by only one type of atom. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons, however, can differ in the number of electrons and neutrons they possess. Elements are defined by the number of protons they contain in the nuclei of their atoms. There are 94 naturally occurring elements on Planet Earth and 24 synthetics, a total of 118 elements.

periodic table of elements

Source: E. Generalic, https://www.periodni.com/images.html

Geology 

Geology is the scientific study of the Earth’s structures and materials. Its history and the processes that have caused it to change over time. Divisions within the science of Geology include, Mineralogy which is the study of minerals, Petrology the study of rocks, and Crystallography the experimental science and analysis of the seven crystal structures. 

Crystals

Crystals are stunning both in natural beauty and proportion. And there appears to be some sort of mathematical formula to how they form in such amazing symmetry. Perfect crystals however are very rare and extremely valuable and the majority of the crystals on our planet are characterised with inclusions, blemishes, distortions or some kind of interruption during their development. And some crystals form in clusters or as twins.

 7 Crystal Structures

There are seven crystal systems in mineral identification:

Cubic (Isometric) System – Crystals comprising three axes of equal length at right angles to one another, as in a cube. Examples are Diamond, Garnet, Halite, and Pyrite.

  1. Hexagonal System – Crystals have two axes of equal length and one axes different in length. All three axes are at right angles to one another. Examples are Cassiterite, Rutile, and Zircon.

Almandine

Almandine

Chemical Formula:  Fe₃Al₂Si₃O₁₂

Chemical Composition:  Aluminum, Iron, Silicon, Oxygen

Crystal System:  Cubic (isometeric)

Class:  Silicates

Mineral Group:  Garnet

Crystal Habit:  Trapezohedral, dodocahedral

Hardness:  7 — 7.5

Density/Specific Gravity:  3.93 — 4.30

Refractive Index:  1.770 — 1.820

Double Refraction:  None

Dispersion:  0.027

Absorption Spectra:  617, 576, 526, 505, 476, 462, 438, 428, 404, 393

Colour:  Brownish red, red, blackish red, red with violet tint

Pleochroism:  None

Transparency:  Transparent to translucent

Lustre:  Vitreous (glass like appearance)

Luminescence:  Inert

Cleavage:  None

Fracture:  Irregular/uneven

Assigned Planet:  Pluto

Additional Zodiac Stone:  Leo

Countries:  Deposits found in Austria, Brazil, Czech Republic, India, Magagascar, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, USA, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Notes:  There are more Almandine gemstones faceted and used in jewellery than any other gemstone categorised in the garnet group

 

almandine

Attribution: Rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com – CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

The List of Gemstones

The List of Gemstones – Crystallography

Crystallography is a science that studies and examines crystals. A crystal is a homogeneous solid substance that has a natural geometric symmetrical uniformity with an arrangement of plane faces. Crystals are made of a lattice of atoms, ions and/or molecules that link together in a repetitive pattern to form into one of seven crystal systems. The list of gemstones in this article is categorised under their appropriate crystal system. 

buy fashion jewelry online

Cubic Crystal System

Also known as the isometric system, the cubic crystal system has three axes of equal length that intersect at right angles. The most common cubic crystal shapes are the cube, pentagonal dodecahedron, rhombic dodecahedron, hexacisochedron, icosi-tetrahedron, and the octahedron.

A
Alamandine

Analcite
Andradite

B
Bixbyite
Boleite

C
Chromite

Cuprite

D
Demantoid

Diamond

F
Fabulite

Fluorite

G
Gahnite
Gahnospinel

Galaxite
Garnet
GGG
Gold
Grossularite

H
Hackmanite
Hauynite

Helvite
Hercynite
Hessonite

K
Katoite

L
Langbeinite
Lapis Lazuli
Lazurite

Leucogranite

M
Magnesiochromite
Magnetite
Melanite

Microlite

P
Pentlandite
Periclase
Picotite
Pleonaste
Pollucite
Pyrite
Pyrope

R
Rhodozite
Rhodolite

S
Schorlomite
Senarmontite
Silver
Sodalite

Spessartine
Sphalerite
Spinel

T
Thorianite
Topazalite
Tsavorite

U
Uvarovite

V
Villiaumite

Y
YAG

Z
Zirconia
Zunyite

Hexagonal Crystal System

The list of gemstones in the hexagonal system has three of four axes on the one plane. These axes are of equal length and intersect each other at 120° angles. The fourth axis is different in length and at right angles to the others. A typical hexagonal crystal shape is a pyramid.

A
Algondite

Apatite
Aquamarine

B
Basnasite
Benotoite
Beryl
Bixbyite
Breithauptite

C
Cacoxenite

Cancrinite
Catapleite
Chlorapatite
Covellite

E
Emerald
Ettringite

F
Flourapatite

G
Gold Beryl
Goshenite
Greenocktite

H
Heliodor
Hydroxylapatite

J
Jeremejevite

L
Lizardite

M
Manganapatite
Milarite
Mimetite Moissanite

Morganite

N
Nepheline
Nickeline

P
Painite
Poudretteite
Precious Beryl

 

S
Simpsonite
Sogdianite
Sturmanite
Sugilite

T
Taaffeite
Thaumasite

V
Vandanite

W
Wurtzite

Z
Zincite

Tetragonal Crystal System

A tetragonal crystal system is a formation that has three axes. Two of these axes are on the same plane and are of equal length. The third and primary axis can be either shorter or longer than the other two however, all three axes intersect at right angles. Typical crystal formations are double pyramids, four-sided prisms and pyramids, eight-sided pyramids, and trapezohedrons.

A
Anatase

Apophyllite

C
Carletonite
Cassiterite
Chalcopyrite
Chiolite

E
Ekanite

F
Fergusonite

 

H
Hyacinth

L
Leucite

M
Marialite
Meionite
Melinophane
Mellite

P
Phosgenite
Powellite
Pyrolusite

R
Rutile

S
Sarcolite
Scapolite
Scheelite

Sellaite
Stolzite

T
Thorite
Tugtupite

V
Vesuvianite

W
Wardite
Wulferite

Z
Zircon

Trigonal Crystal System

The trigonal system (rhombohedral system) is a crystal formation where three of the four axes are on the same plane and are equal in length. They intersect each other at angles of 120°. The fourth axis is is at right angles to the others and is different in length. The cross section of the prism base in a trigonal system is three sided. In Hexagonal systems it is six. Typical trigonal crystal formations are three sided prisms and pyramids, scalenohedra, and rhombohedra. 

A
Achroite

Agate
Amethyst
Amethyst Quartz
Ametrine
Ankerite
Aventurine

B
Bloodstone
Blue Quartz
Brucite
Buergerite

C
Calcite
Carnelian
Cat’s-Eye Quartz
Chalcedony
Chromdravite
Chrysoprase
Citrine
Cinnabar
Corundum

D
Davidite
Dendritic Agate
Dioptase
Dolomite
Dravite

E
Elbaite
Eudialyte

G
Gaspeite

H
Hawk’s-Eye
Hematite

I
Ilmenite
Indicolite

J
Jasper

L
Liddicoatite
Linobate
Lizardite

M
Magnesite
Melonite
Millerite
Moss Agate

P
Parisite
Pezzottaite

Petrified Wood
Phenakite
Povondraite
Prase
Prasiolite

Proustite
Pyrargyrite

Q
Quartz

R
Rhodochrosite
Rock Crystal
Rose Quartz
Rubellite
Ruby

S
Sapphire
Sardonyx
Schlossmacherite
Schorl
Siberite
Siderite
Smithsonite
Sphaerocobaltite
Smoky Quartz
Stichtite

T
Tiger’s-Eye
Tsilaisite
Tourmaline

 

U
Uvite

V
Verdelite

W
Willemite

Orthorhombic Crystal System

The list of gemstones in the orthorhombic system (rhombic system) have three different length axes are at right angles to each other. Typical shapes are basal pinacoids, pyramids, rhombic prisms, and rhombic double pyramid.

A
Adamite
Aeschyrite
Alexandrite
Andalusite
Anglesite
Anhydrite
Aragonite

B
Baryte
Bastite

Bismutotantalite
Boracite
Bornite

Bronzite
Brookite

C
Celestine
Cerussite
Chambersite
Childrenite
Chrysoberyl
Cobalite
Cordierite

D
Danburite
Descloizite
Diaspore
Dumortierite

E
Enstatite
Eosphorite
Euchroite
Euxenite

F
Ferrosilite
Fosterite

G
Goethite
Grandidierite

H
Hambergite
Hemimorphite
Heterosite
Holtite
Humite
Hypersthene

K
Kornerupine

L
Lawsonite
Libethenite
Lithiophilite

M
Manganotantalite
Marcasite
Mordernite

N
Natrolite
Norbergite

P
Pearl
Peridot
Prehnite
Purpurite

 

S
Scorodite
Sekaninaite
Sepoiolate
Shattuckite
Shomiokite
Shortite
Sillimanite
Sunhalite
Smarskite
Stibiotantalite
Strontianite
Sulfur

T
Tanzanite
Tephroite

Thomsonite
Thulite
Topaz
Triphylite

V
Varsicite

W
Wavellite
Witherite

Y
Yttrotantalite

Z
Zektzerite
Zoisite

Monoclinic Crystal System

The monoclinic crystal system is a crystal system where three axes are different in length. Two of the axes are at right angles to each other and the other axis is inclined. Common crystal forms are prisms with inclined end faces and basal pinacoids.

A
Actinolite
Aegirine
Aegirine-Augite
Allanite
Antigorite
Augelite
Azurite

B
Barytocalcite
Bayldonite
Beryllonite

Bikitaite
Bowenite

Brazilianite

C
Canasite
Chalcocite
Charoite
Childrenite
Chondrotite
Chromian Diopside
Chrysocolla
Clinochlore
Clinochrysotile
Clinoenstatite
Clinohumite
Colemanite
Creedite
Crocoite
Cryolite

D
Datolite
Dickinsonite
Diopside

E
Epidote
Euclase

F
Friedelite
Fuchsite

G
Gadolinite
Gaylussite
Gypsum

H
Hancocktite
Hedenbergite
Herderite
Hiddenite
Hodgkinsonite
Hornblende
Howlite
Hubnerite
Hureaulite
Huributite
Hyalophane
Hydroxylherderite

I
Inderite

J
Jadeite

K
Kammererite
Kunzite

L
Lazulite
Legrandite
Lepidolite
Ludlamite

M
Malachite
Mesolite
Monazite

Moonstone
Muscovite

N
Nephrite
Neptunite

O
Orthoclase

P
Palygorskite
Papagoite
Pargasite
Petalite
Phosphophyllite
Piemontite
Prosopite
Psilomelane
Pumpellyite
Pyrophyllite

R
Realgar
Richterite
Rinkite

S
Sanidine
Sapphirine Scolecite
Scorzalite
Serpentine
Smaragdite
Spodumene
Spurrite
Staurolite

T
Talc
Tawmawite
Titanite
Tremolite

V
Vayrynenite
Violane
Vivianite
Vlascovite

W
Whewellite
Williamsite
Wolframite
Wollastonite

X
Xonotite

Y
Yugawaralite

Triclinic Crystal System

The list of gemstones in the triclinic crystal system have three axes of different length. All axes are inclined to each other at non-perpendicular angles relative to each other. Paired faces are a typical example of a triclinic crystal formation.

A
Albite
Amazonite
Amblygonite

Andesine
Anorthite
Anorthoclase
Axinite

B
Bustamite
Bytownite

C
Cerleite
Chabazite

F
Ferro-Axinite
Fowlerite

K
Kurnakovite
Kyanite

L
Labrodorite
Leucophanite

M
Magnesio-Axinite
Manganaxinite
Microline
Montebrasite

N
Nambulite
Natromontebrasite

O
Oligoclase

P
Pectolite
Peristerite
Pyrophylite
Pyroxymangite

R
Rhodonite

S
Serandite
Serendibite
Sunstone

T
Talc
Tinzenite
Turquoise

U
Ulexite
Ussingite

W
Weloganite
Wollastonite

X
Xonolite

Amorphous

Unlike crystals, Amorphous materials are non-crystalline solids that have no apparent shape, symmetry or organisation

Amber

Glass

Moldavite

Obsidian

Opal

Petrified Wood

Strass

Misleading Gemstone Names

Correct Names

Italian Jade
Korean Jade

Lithia Amethyst
Lithia Emerald
Madeira Topaz
Marmarosch Diamond
Matura Diamond
Mexican Diamond
Mexican Jade
Montana Ruby
Oriental Amethyst
Oriental Hyacinth
Oriental Topaz
Palmyra Topaz
Salmanca Topaz
Saxon Chyrosolite
Saxon Diamond
Serra Topaz
Siamese Aquamarine
Siberian Chrysolite
Siberian Ruby
Simili Diamond
Slave-Diamond
Smoky Topaz
Spanish Topaz
Strass Diamond
Transvaal Jade
Ural Sapphire
Viennese Turquoise

Aventurine (Quartz)
Serpentine
Kunzite (Spodumene)
Hiddenite (Spodumene)
Citrine (Quartz)
Rock Crystal (Quartz)
Colorless fired Zircon
Rock Crystal (Quartz)
Artificially tinted Green Marble
Red Garnet
Violet Sapphire
Pink Sapphire
Yellow Sapphire
Brown Synthetic Sapphire
Citrine (Quartz)
Greenish-Yellow Topaz
Colorless Topaz
Citrine (Quartz)
Blue Zircon
Demantoid (Garnet)
Red Tourmaline
Glass Imitation
Colorless Topaz
Smoky Quartz
Citrine (Quartz)
Glass Imitation
Green Hydrogrossular Garnet
Blue Tourmaline
Artificially Blue-tinted Argillaceous Earth

Source: False and misleading names of some gemstones, p 13, newly revised fifth edition, Gemstones of the World, Walter Schumann

Healing with Gemstones and Crystals

Celestial Powers 

Gemstones are identified as symbols for a celestial link between humans and the sun, moon, and stars. Gemstones and Crystals also symbolize magic and healing. And it is believed that the powers attributed to healing with Gemstones and Crystals, can prevent and cure illnesses and other ailments.

Written historical accounts about the curative powers of gemstones have been in existence since the Old Age. Famous writers such as the Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote about their powers back in the ancient years before Christ. And over centuries to follow, healing with Gemstones and Crystals was well documented in a book called Physica written by the Abbess Hildegard von Bingen (1098 – 1179).

healing with gemstones and crystals

Earth, Sun & Moon

The energetic powers attributed to the healing capabilities of Gemstones and Crystals stem from Mother Earth during the time of stone formation and from the warming rays of the sun. It is therefore recommended exposing the healing stones and crystals to sunlight and moonlight from time to time so they can replenish any energy that may have been lost during the process of healing. And belief is it is most effective to put the stones on a window sill two nights before a full moon!!!

Another method used in achieving energy restoration is the stone’s burial, whereby a natural stone is placed in the ground overnight and the following day rinsed with water for a short time period. Synthetic stones cannot be used because they are not natural and lack soul, unlike a natural gemstone that is grown in Mother Nature.

Mystical Signs & Shapes

In order to maximize the effects of healing with Gemstones and Crystals, at times symbolic and mystical signs are carved on the stone, a common practice used back in the Antiquity and Middle Ages.

According to therapists the shape of a gemstone may also be useful in treatment. For example, the best symmetrical Rock Crystals with a pronounced tip are used as pendulums to increase a person’s success in the search for effective stones and to diagnose sickness.

According to a recent publication, a newly bought, inherited or gifted stone should go through the procedure of discharging (burying for some days or rinsing with cold water) before treatment in order to achieve the most beneficial results.

The much-praised healing powers of natural stones and crystals may come from the presence of the minerals within the gemstone providing certain elements and trace elements. Spiritual uplifting derived from viewing the beauty of the gemstone can also contribute to better health. And a positive mind is the foundation for good health.

healing gemstones and crystals

Healing Powers of Gemstones and Crystals

Arthritis

• Apatite   

• Aquamarine 

 • Amber   

• Euclase   

• Fluorite   

• Garnet 

• Island Spar 

 • Magnetite   

• Malachite   

• Pyrite   

• Tourmaline

healing with gemstones

Blisters

• Agate   

• Aventurine   

• Beryl   

• Diamond   

• Indigolite   

• Lapis Lazuli   

• Rhodochrosite   

• Turquoise   

• Vandanite   

• Zircon

healing with gemstones and crystals

Eye Inflammation

• Apophyllite   

• Aquamarine   

• Eye Agate

• Chalcedony    

• Rock Crystal   

 • Dioptase   

• Hawk’s-eye   

• Malachite   

• Onyx   

• Sapphire

Headaches

• Amethyst   

• Analcime 

• Azurite   

• Rock Crystal 

• Diamond   

• Dioptase   

• Dumortierite   

• Emerald   

• Violet Fluorite   

• Hermatite

• Lapis Lazuli   

• Larimar   

• Magnesite   

• Malachite   

• Moonstone   

• Tiger’s-eye

Heart Ailments

• Adamine   

• Aventurine   

• Calcite   

• Rose Chalcedony   

• Carnelian   

• Dolomite Spar   

• Magnesite   

• Muscovite 

• Orthoclase   

• Pincopale 

• Pyrolusite   

• Rhodonite   

• Rose Quartz 

• Topaz   

• Turquoise

Pancreas

• Amethyst   

• Citrine   

• Garnet   

• Red Jasper   

• Yellow Jasper   

• Magnetite   

• Moonstone   

• Obsidian   

• Prehnite   

• Green Tourmaline

amethyst

Sciatica

• Amethyst   

• Carnelian   

• Chrysolite   

• Chrysoprase   

• Citrine   

• Diamond   

• Emerald   

• Heliotrope   

• Jasper   

• Lapis Lazuli   

• Magnetite

• Malachite   

• Pearl   

• Pyrite   

• Rhodochrosite   

• Rose Quartz   

• Ruby   

• Tiger’s-eye   

• Turquoise

Testicles

• Carnelian   

• Rock Crystal   

• Chalcedony   

• Diamond   

• Garnet   

• Jade   

• Rose Quartz   

• Rubellite   

• Scheelite   

• Thulite   

• Tiger’s-eye

• Zircon

healing with gemstones and crystals

Toenails

• Amber   

• Calcite   

• Orange Calcite   

• Carnelian   

• Chrysophase   

• Diamond   

• Garnet   

• Jasper   

• Onyx   

• Pearl   

• Rhodochrosite 

• Rose Quartz   

• Ruby   

• Sapphire   

• Red Tourmaline   

• Turquoise

Throat (Sore) 

• Aquamarine   

• Barytes   

• Rock Crystal   

• Lapis Lazuli   

• Larimar   

• Opal   

• Silver   

• Sodalite   

• Blue Topaz

Varicose Veins

• Layered Agate   

• Amber   

• Aquamarine   

• Carnelian   

• Chrysoprase   

• Rock Crystal   

• Diamond   

• Garnet   

• Lapis Lazuli   

• Pearl   

• Ruby 

• Sapphire   

• Topaz   

• Zircon

Most Brilliant Diamond Cut

Amulet Stones

Agate

Effective against the curse of the evil eye.

Fluorite

Stimulates the regeneration of mucous membranes and skin and strengthens teeth and bones. Various shapes are also believed to enhance a stone’s effect.

Jasper

Protects against the abnormal increased function of the thyroid gland. Women are advised to carry Jasper with them, particularly those between the ages of 30 – 40.

Snowflake Obsidian

An earthy property that protects against loss of confidence or cold feet.

Sodalite

Gives the body more strength and enhances immunity.

Sugilite

Has a tranquil effect on the nerves and brain.

Apache Tears

Apache Tears is the trade name for the drop-like or rounded shapes for the volcanic rock glass Obsidian. In primeval times it is believed to have been used as an amulet. In modern times Apache Tears is a common healing stone, especially among Native Americans.
Apache Tears are used for:

  • Aiding indigestion
  • Helping stomach and intestinal problems
  • Possible cure for stomach ulcers

Boji Stones

Boji stones are the trade name for bulbous aggregate from Limonite and Pyrite. These stones best develop their powers in pairs and release their centre of energy through stroking. The male stone is said to be more angular and the female stone smoother. These stones are only found in Kansas USA.

Moqui – Marbles

Moqui-Marbles are Globular Limonite Aggregate from Utah and Arizona in the USA. Their effect is intensified through touch, tenderness, affection, light, and closeness to the body. They apparently loosen blockages and congestion and bring about a greater feeling of togetherness.  Moqui-Marbles have their greatest effect in pairs.

Pyrite Sun

Pyrite Sun is a radial disc-shaped Aggregate used in costume jewelry and as a healing stone. In 1997 it was written the Pyrite Sun cures indigestion and stomach disease. When worn in silver around the neck, it significantly boosts the immune system.

Sky Stone

Sky Stone is the name for a mesentery layered fine-grained light coloured limestone. When in the shape of a pyramid and placed under the bed, Sky Stones are effective against sleep deprivation. When the stone is pulverized into small granules it is effective against joint pains. Sky Stone is mined solely in the Salzburg region of Austria.

The Mystery, The Fantasy, The Connection

Gemstones and Crystals are something special due to their rarity, colour, lustre, and formation and have always been surrounded by mystery and fantasy. It is expected their magical powers protect against injury from outside influences, provide medicinal benefits, and increase inner strength.

In relation to the mystical notions surrounding the connection between man, earth, and the universe, precious gemstones are a symbol for magic and fascination and are worn as Amulets and Talismans to bring good luck and protect against evil.

I love all gemstone but I would say my favourite is the Australian Black Opal.

So what’s your favourite gemstone?

,T